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    7.1 of 10 on the basis of 3177 Review.
     

     

     

     

     

     

         
     

    Cnc Machining

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    Everything before this topic is preparation. CNC Machining is where the rubber meets the road. All the steps of CNC before machining are just preparing for the machining phase of the project. A simple definition of machining is removing material. You remove material in various ways to come up with the part or piece. CNC Machining can be performed on numerous types of material. For example, wood, steel, aluminum, and stone. Machining generally has higher tolerances associated with it. When machining, you are trying to do something more precise. In machining, we use some sort of tool. This tool could be a grinder, drill bit, end mill, router bit or other tool. There are infinite variations of tools. CNC Tooling generally costs a fair amount of money. Once you invest in your tooling though, you can use it again and again until it wears out. If you have a large variety of different tools, you will be able to perform a large variety of machining types. Here is a list of common tooling used in CNC Machines: Drill bits End mills Plasma cutter Dovetail cutter Fly cutter If you would like to look at different types of CNC tooling, go to one of these sources on the Internet: Enco Travers McMasters Carr Grainger Flip through a few of these suppliers’ catalogs and you will get an idea about the infinite styles of tooling. CNC is used in the machining process. Generally, you can get better accuracy, quicker production, and overall efficiencies when utilizing CNC machining. This is why it has become so popular. In the past, CNC machining was very costly. Over time, it has become somewhat inexpensive and now people do it as a hobby. I am guessing that is why you are here. Here are a few different types of CNC machines that perform various machining processes: Milling machines Wood routers Plasma cutters Foam cutters Press brakes Lathes Cutoff saws People have successfully applied CNC to virtually any type of motion control. The only thing that will limit you is your imagination.



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    How To Machine Magnesium

    #1

    Magnesium has been used in manufacturing notebook computer frames, video cameras, digital cameras, PDAs and other consumer electronics products because of its high strength to weight ratio. When magnesium is alloyed with aluminum, the resultant material is very light and strong, and easily machinable. The main concern in machining magnesium alloy is the danger of fire ignition when dry cutting. Fire may occur when the melting point of the alloy (400 600 degrees Celsius) is exceeded during machining. The small chips and fine dust generated during cutting are also highly flammable and pose a serious fire risk if not properly handled. There are several points to note when machining magnesium: Firstly, use a lower cutting speed when compared to cutting aluminum. The workpiece temperature goes up with an increase in cutting speed and also smaller undeformed chip thickness. In other words, the slower the machining speed and the larger the chips, the lower the workpiece temperature will be. Due to this reason, some companies have modified woodworking tools for machining magnesium so as to achieve larger chips and lower fire hazard. The cutting tools used should have relief and clearance angles that are sufficiently large to prevent unnecessary cutting tool workpiece friction, thus lowering the heat generated during the cutting process. Second, keep the machining center clean. Cleaning the machining centers regularly and storing the magnesium chips correctly are important aspects of machining magnesium. Keep a container of cast iron chips near by when machining magnesium, If fire occurs, smother the fire with the cast iron chips. Thirdly, if coolants are necessary for high speed machining, do not use water based lubricants. Instead use a light mineral oil, or a water soluble cutting fluid such as Castrol Hysol MG specially formulated for machining magnesium. Some companies in Japan use semi dry machining via a misting system. The fourth point is to monitor the workpiece temperature during machining. Experiments were carried out using thermocouples mounted into the workpiece to monitor the workpiece temperature during machine. Dry cutting of magnesium alloy thin walls was achieved using cutting speed of 440m/min for roughing and 628m/min for fine finishing. Despite the fire hazards, as competition from overseas low cost production bases intensifies, and magnesium becomes increasingly used in electronics products, most machining job shops could very well find machining of magnesium a niche worth pursuing.



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    Electrical Discharge Machine Buying Tips

    #1

    Electrical Discharge Machining or EDM is electrical equipment or a machining method that is used for hard metallic materials. It is primarily used on hard metals that cannot be processed by traditional methods and techniques. Electrical Discharge Machining, however, only works with metallic objects that are electrically conductive. EDM can cut small unusual shaped angles, complex curves and outlines in numerous types of extremely hard steels and exotic metals like titanium and carbide just to name a few. 1. How It Works Sometime referred to as spark machining or spark eroding. Electrical discharge machining is a method of removing material by a series of rapidly recurring electric discharges between the cutting tool and the work piece, in the presence of an energetic electrical field. The EDM equipment is guided very close along the desired path but it does not touch the metallic piece. Instead the sparks produce a series of micro crates on the metallic piece and remove materials along the desired path by melting and vaporizing them. The wasted particles then are washed away by the continuous flushing of dielectric fluid. 2. Choose Your Type Of Machine First you should specify what kind of Electrical Discharge machine you are going to utilize for there are two types of Electrical discharge machining equipment on the market today. The wire and the probe or die sinker Electronic Discharge Machine. If your company is into processing complex geometric shapes then the probe or die sinker EDM is the tool that you should use and buy. This kind of Electrical Discharge Machining tool uses a machine graphite or copper electrode to erode the desired shape into the metallic materials. Alternatively, if your company is more into assembly part cutting then the wire EDM is the best machining method to be used. In a wire EDM a hole must be first drilled into the material then a wire will be fed through it to cut the desired shapes. 3. Scale Of Production The next thing to think about is the scale of production that your company will be manufacturing. If it is on a large scale production then you should think of buying bigger Electrical discharge machining Equipments. There are selling companies that give out discount if you will be purchasing a large amount of EMD tools. Of course, if your company is into small amounts of production and will be utilizing EDM tools on a one time usage basis only, then you can just have your metallic pieces cut out by EDM companies. It is much cheaper to just pay for the service charge than purchasing your own Electrical discharge machining Tools. 4. Ask Yourself: What kind of products will I be producing? How many products will I be producing? Do I have the right amount of money and resources to fabricate this product? 5. Getting The Best Deal You can find numerous companies that sell different kinds of Electrical discharge machining tools on the internet. So before going to the nearest EDM stores in your locality, why not check out the internet first, it could save you time, money and the hassle of driving out in the city. And with the tight competition of online companies you can even find a discounted price for new EDM equipments online. There are also e commerce sites that offer second hand and fully refurbished electrical discharge machining tools on the internet. So if you are having financial issues but really need to buy one, second hand EMD equipment may work fine for you.



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    Improving Manufacturing Cycle Times Through Machine Tooling

    #1

    Machining center manufacturers are all looking for and touting the ability to reduce part cycle times by offering faster and more efficient machines. That is what the job shop and part production customers of these products demand, because their end product customers are driving a purchasing philosophy of lower costs per part. While the choice of a high speed machining center makes a major difference in operational productivity and part cost, the tooling utilized on that machine can be another dominant factor. The efficiency of such new, special purpose proprietary tooling can even further enhance the output of a horizontal machining center. It can provide a wide degree of flexibility in compressing several machining processes, especially in parts production. Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, says that the use of special purpose and multifunctional tools, like the SmartTools it manufactures, helps in this process compression. These specially designed and patented tools reduce cycle times as well as production costs, which saves money. As an example, there are a number of unique, special tools that can reduce the initial capital investment and drive out substantial process time in the machining of engine blocks. Cylinder bores can be finished and honed with a precise closed loop boring system that automatically compensates for tool wear or thermal distortion and produces exceptional repeatability. You can also grind bimetallic surfaces utilizing a cubic boron nitride superabrasive grinding wheel all on a standard machining center. Machines incorporated with this special, multifunctional tooling will outperform a number of individual specialty purpose machines when used in an integrated system. Mid to high volume parts manufacturers often invest in state of the art machine tool technology, and can further enhance their flexibility and productivity with the use of such special purpose tooling. With more and more demand to streamline processes and production cycle times, especially from original equipment manufacturer outsourcing operations, there is a growing need for more valuable and cost effective solutions for jobs shops and production facilities. And, the solutions exist to allow them to "work smarter."



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    Why Does The Tool Bit Break Easily In Micro Milling

    #1

    Micro milling is one of the three common micro cutting techniques used in micro machining. In micro milling, the tool bit with diameter as small as 0.1mm is held in a high speed spindle rotating at 20,000 to 150,000 rpm, and used to mill steel, brass and aluminum with depth of cut at about 30 microns and feed rates of 120mm/m to 240mm/m to provide surface quality finishes as good as 0.2 microns. While micro milling has been successfully applied in manufacturing bio medical components, embossing dies and micro encoders, the breakage of the tool bit has been identified by many users as a teething problem. Why does the tool bit break so easily in micro milling as compared to conventional milling? There are 3 main reasons: Firstly, when metal is removed by machining, there is a substantial increase in the specific energy required as the chip thickness decreases. This means that in the case of micro machining, as the chip gets thinner with smaller depths of cut, the micro tool bit will be subject to greater resistance when compared to conventional machining. It is as if the workpiece material becomes harder during micro machining. This resistance force is strong enough to exceed the bending strength limit of the tool bit even before the tool experiences any significant wear, and leads to the breakage of the tool bit. One way to prevent this is to make the chip thickness smaller than the edge radius of the tool bit. Secondly, a sharp increase in cutting forces and stress from chip clogging during the micro milling process would cause the tool bit to break. In most micro milling operations using miniature micro tool bit with two cutting edges, each cutting edge removes the chips from the machining area only within half a rotation. However, if chip clogging occurs, the cutting forces and stresses will increase beyond the bending strength limit of the tool bit within a few tool rotations, and the tool bit will break. Some users prefer high speed steel tool bits as these are very much more flexible and tolerate clogging better than carbide tool bits. Third, the tool bit tends to lose its cutting edge due to built up edge and cannot machine efficiently. As the workpiece starts to push on the tip of the tool bit, the tool bit will deflect slightly. The increase in tool deflection and the stress generated by the milling with every rotation will eventually cause the breakage of the tool bit. This process is also called extensive stress related breakage. In view of the above phenomena occurring in micro milling, most micro milling machines are sold with sensors to measure the forces acting on the tool bit, and advanced CAM software to predict the chip load throughout the micro machining process. In this way, precision manufacturers seeking a niche in micro milling could try to keep their machines running smoothly with minimal machine downtime.



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    How To Use Diamond Tool To Cut Steel In Micro Machining

    #1

    The diamond tool is commonly used in micro machining as it can withstand the micro hardening of the workpiece surface during micro machining. This micro hardening creates enough resistance to break the tool bit easily in micro milling, but not a diamond tool. Micro machining using diamond tool could be performed at high speeds and generally fine speeds to produce good surface finish such as mirror surfaces and high dimensional accuracy in non ferrous alloys and abrasive non metallic materials. However, if a diamond tool were to be used to cut steel, one of the most common engineering materials used in industries, the diamond tool will face severe tool wear. While diamond only softens at 1350 degree Celsius and melts at 3027 degree Celsius, and is also the hardest material in the world, it has a weakness. Diamond succumbs to graphitization, which means that it will change its crystal structure to graphite crystal structure at 200 degree Celsius in the presence of a catalyst metal such as carbon steel and alloys with titanium, nickel and cobalt. There have been various attempts to improve the tool life of the diamond tool while cutting steel so as to improve the efficiency and profitability of this operation. Such processes include micro cutting the steel workpiece in a carbon rich gas chamber as well as a cryongenically cooled chamber. However, these methods require costly equipment modification and restrict direct supervision of the micro cutting process. The latest breakthrough came when the diamond tool was subject to ultrasonic vibration during micro cutting. It has been shown that a diamond tool subject to ultrasonic vibration can cut the steel well enough to produce a mirror surface finish with acceptable tool life. The ultrasonic vibration at the diamond tool tip allows the tool face to cool down considerably during the cutting process and delays the chemical reaction between the diamond tool and the steel workpiece. As a result, the diamond tool life is increased by a few hundred times. For example, a single crystal diamond tool with feedrate 5 micron/revolution, cutting speed zero to 5m/min and depth of cut 10 micron was attached to a ultrasonic vibration generator so that the diamond tool tip vibrated about 4 microns while it was used to cut stainless steel. The mirror surface finish of the cut steel surface was measured at 8 nm Ra! With more and more machining companies moving into the niche micro machining field, such ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting can only help the progressive company to achieve process leadership and innovative differentiation.



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    Fuel Cell Power The Energy Of The Future

    #1

    Many scientific and engineering thought leaders consider fuel cell power stacks as the primary technology in the evolution of electronic or alternative fuel automobiles within the next decade. According to Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, technologically advanced vertical machining centers are proven to be the ideal method for machining and manufacturing molds for the production of fuel cell power stack separator plate membranes. These membranes are the key to producing affordable fuel cell power stacks. Certain rigid and thermally stable vertical machining centers can produce a depth accuracy within 2 microns, and a superior surface finish quality of 0.4 microns in 40 Rockwell C steel molds, both of which are essential in making such plastic and rubber membranes. These membranes have to be of high quality and specification to establish the proper electrochemical conversion process to convert hydrogen and oxygen from the air into water. The process flow then produces electricity and heat, especially when configured in a fuel cell stack via a reformer, which controls and regulates the hydrogen for safety. Such an electrolyte or proton exchange membrane separates and buffers the negatively charged anodes, repelling electrons, and the positively charged cathodes, attracting electrons. The membrane allows the electrons to flow through it to the cathode side of the fuel cell stack, generating electricity. Combustible fuels burn, and standard batteries store electrical energy as chemical energy and convert it back again. But a fuel cell stack provides direct current power. Unlimited supplies of fuel cell stack energy can be created via the mass production of low cost membranes, which can be a growing market for most machine shops equipped with technologically advanced verticals. This energy source can not only be used as power for automobiles but also as power for utility companies and home generation units, offering the world low cost, safe, quiet, efficient, environmentally friendly and readily available power solutions.



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    Rapid Prototyping Revolution

    #1

    In the past, any new consumer or industrial product part brought to market had to first have a prototype built to ensure that the design could be properly applied and used by the manufacturer. Years ago, these were often wooden miniatures and clay models. More recently, laser sintering technology has allowed plastic samples to be built from CAD/CAM electronic drawings and powdered resin. The newest trend is called rapid prototyping. Advancements in machining speed and flexibility combined with sophisticated electronic computer interfaces allow for cost effective, exact metal sample parts or molds for plastic injection parts. Technical and application engineers at Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, say that such advanced machining technology permits companies to cut manufacturing steps. These eliminated steps are primarily created because steel can now be milled as quickly and cost effectively as aluminum or other lighter materials. Such progress allows mold builders and other manufacturers to actually develop applications which can be utilized immediately to make more products. This allows their customers to get new products to market faster. Many other kinds of prototypes don't carry the real properties that the customer is trying to simulate. Most rapid prototypes are made from the raw material intended for the final product, which makes it identical to what is actually going to be put in production. Customers can get a hardened steel or prehardened steel part or mold in five or six weeks versus 10 or 12 weeks from previous processes. This is a timesavings they appreciate in an effort to get their product to market faster and less expensively. Technological advancements like CAD and other sophisticated computer interfaces can positively combine with state of the art machine tools that are accurate, rigid and stable in order to achieve maximum results. Customers can save up to two thirds of the total time originally required by more traditional mold building processes.



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    Industrial Information High Speed Milling Machines

    #1

    High speed machining is a proven stipulation characterized by low cutting forces and high metal removal. High Speed Milling is a technique used in the CNC Milling Industry that combines high spindle speeds with increased feed rates. This results in a high chip forming rate and lower milling forces, producing an improved surface quality and closer tolerances. In high speed milling, the electronics can make all the difference. The right CNC coupled with other elements of the control system can let a slower machine mill a given form faster than a machine with a higher top feed rate. 1. High Speed Uses High speed CNC milling is used, for example, to machine the titanium rotors of the first high pressure compressor stages of the EJ200 engine. High speed CNC milling allows cost effective milling of the airfoil geometry from the solid. By subsequent finishing operations the planned surface finish is achieved. The CNC milling which caters to high speed must be structured with an axis movement system that is suitable for machining. 2. Axis Movement The high speed CNC milling machines required for the process must be fitted with an axis movement system suitable for machining blisks, which should be at least 5 axes simultaneously, depending on the milling task involved and an efficiently high speed control system. 3. 3D Surfaces High Speed CNC milling machines working on 3D surfaces in any materials produce a finer surface finish and higher accuracy in less time that the traditional milling machine. Acceleration is the most critical factor that affects the high speed machining. Since one or more axis are always increasing or decreasing velocity in a 3 D cut, ultimate feed rate is directly related to acceleration 4. What Can A High Speed Control Possibly Do? A CNC milling machine which possesses a higher structural stiffness has a greater potential acceleration rate. Box shaped high speed CNC milling machine, like Bridge and Gantry is the mostly widely used types of High speed CNC milling tools. The overhead type Gantry exudes the highest stiffness, acceleration and accuracy among other high speed CNC milling tools. Due to its scalability, this machine type is available in sizes to match the work piece, from small to large. In usual terms, it simply gives you the ability to finish one task faster and move along to the next sooner, making work output higher. In drilling and tapping, this can result in faster hole to hole times, quicker spindle reversals for tapping, and substantial cycle time reductions. The most dramatic benefits, though, come in 3D designs machining. Few, drilling and tapping jobs require a million lines of machine codes. In molds, dies, patterns, and prototypes, complex surfaces comprising a million or more line segments are not at all uncommon. Saving just a fraction of a second per move can result in substantial cycle time improvements. 5. Downsides When Is Fast Too Fast? But despite all these benefits, in high milling, the tool path segments can be so short that a machining center moving at a high feed rate can’t accelerate or decelerate fast enough to make direction changes accurately. Corners may be rounded off and the work piece surface may be gouged. Look ahead is one answer. Look ahead capability can let the CNC read ahead a certain number of blocks in the program, to anticipate sudden direction changes and slow the feed rate accordingly. 6. Additional Benefits: Improved accuracy Better fit Superior finish Better life Produce more work in less time Improving the accuracy and finish Reducing polishing and fitting time Tools simply last longer because their chip load is more consistent



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    Micromanufacturing Opportunities Grow

    #1

    The demand and application of micron and sub micron manufacturing requirements is growing, which offers unique challenges and immense opportunities to a wide group of tool shops and production parts manufacturers in the United States. The term micromachining loosely refers to part details and holes smaller than the human hair that are measured only in microns or one thousandth of a millimeter. This focus on micromachining has captured the imagination of nearly every industrial segment. According to several market studies, micromanufacturing was a $3.9 billion industry in 2001. The market is expected to reach $9.6 billion by 2006. Technical and application engineers at Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, say that such industries as biomedical, medical appliance, personal electronics, fluid transfer, optics and fiber optics, RF electronics, communications, military, aerospace products, and the automotive world are focused on micromanufacturing. They all see the potential in new and exciting consumer and industrial products emerging daily. These smaller, lighter parts with higher degrees of functionality have set new demands on original equipment manufacturers to reevaluate the design and concepts of various machining systems and technologies. You may have already experienced a number of emerging uses in micromachined parts in your computer, heart monitor or pacemaker, automobile, cell phone, and many more applications. The capability to produce parts with such high accuracy and surface quality on a variety of newer materials, including metal alloys and ceramic, is in very high demand. Unique new machines can produce holes as tiny as 0.00078 inches in diameter, 100 times smaller than many previous machining operations. The application of micromanufacturing represents a "business reality" to machine manufacturers and suppliers. Learning to apply these high tech designs, concepts and machine tools will permit U. S. manufacturers to offer a broader understanding and service capability to combat foreign manufacturing competition.



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    What Enables You To Flip Your Cell Phone Open

    #1

    The latest Nokia N90 and Motorola RAZR V3 clamshell mobile cell phones all incorporate sophisticated hinges which allow you to flip open your cell phones smartly amongst admiring onlookers. Another winner is the hinge assembly in Orange SPV M5000 3G PDA cell phone device which allows the screen half of the cell phone to swivel 180 degrees and close to allow simultaneous tablet mode and full phone functionality. These hinge assemblies which were previously used in laptop computers have been designed into the sleekest cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDA) and small handheld digital cameras over the past few years. Basically, the hinge assembly connects the cell phone base to the folder unit which contains the display screen. From the simple open snap close mechanism, the latest hinge mechanism now can control the angle of opening. Free stop designs, where the folding stops at any angle, and 2 degree of freedom hinge assembly is in vogue. This flip and twist hinge assembly combines 2 rotary hinges with perpendicular axes, letting the clamshell cell phone flip open then twist 180 degress. Each tiny custom hinge comprises a guide pin, shaft, cam, spring and housing. Advancing from the classic hinge components which were made from polyoxymethylene, the latest complicated hinge components are designed and manufactured from metals to provide stronger rotary hinge joints. These hinge components are manufactured using the metal injection molding (MIM) process or cnc machining. The former process, which is suitable for complex solid net shape components, allows the mass production of hinge components competitively. However, with the recent shortening of product cycle in the competitive cell phone market, especially in Japan, more and more cell phone manufacturers are working with competent precision machining companies capable of machining these hinge components. Leading Japanese companies in developing and selling sophisticated hinge units include Strawberry Corporation, Sugatsune Kogyou Co., Ltd, Omron Corporation and Yamamoto Precision Co., Ltd.



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    Being Competitive In A Global Market

    #1

    The challenges of today's global marketplace are forcing companies to look at doing things differently in order to get that extra edge over their competition. According to Makino, a global provider of advanced machining technology, companies doing things the same way they have been doing them for the last 10 to 15 years are probably in a "recurring uniform trap," or "RUT," while the global market is passing them by. Why do something differently? Productivity is a big reason. A 21st century equation explains what productivity requirements will be for the future; the concept being half the number of people, making twice as much money, but doing three times the amount of work. In manufacturing, this concept is coming true today. Companies are looking under every rock for opportunities to improve productivity, increase efficiency and lower costs. In many machine shops, machining centers sit idle while manual work is still being performed. By doing things this way, the companies are not getting the most out of their machine nor their personnel investment. In today's competitive environment, companies must identify if they are stuck in a RUT. In order to improve, they must be willing to step outside their comfort zones and create solutions. Culture change takes place gradually, and everyone, especially the people who are out on the floor, must first have a high level of confidence that new technology will work and work reliably before they embrace it. Reliable, high performance machines not only produce results but also eliminate your business RUT.



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