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    9 of 10 on the basis of 3125 Review.
     

     

     

     

     

     

         
     
    Lysenko And Stalin S Genetics
         

     

    Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (1898 1976) was an agronomist. During the reign of Lenin and Stalin years in the Soviet Union, he became the chief proponent of the work of the self taught plant breeder Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (1855 1935) and his brand of Lamarckism a pre Darwinian theory of evolution of the species proposed in the French scientist Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 1829). He was appointed as the president (1938 56) of the Lenin All Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the director (1940 65) of the Institute of Genetics, USSR Academy of Sciences. The leadership of the USSR believed his promises to deliver rapid increases in crop yields. Lamarck proposed that organisms can inherit traits acquired by their ancestors. The first giraffes stretched their necks to eat leaves on tall trees. Their offspring acquired this elongated neck and the desire to further stretch it. A species with long necks was born. The Soviet leadership sought an indigenous theory to counter the "capitalistic" works of Mendel and Charles Darwin and to separate evolution from genetics. Following a speech he gave at a conference in 1948 denouncing Mendelian genetics as "reactionary and decadent", Lysenko rose to prominence. Geneticists who opposed Lysenkoism were dispatched to the gulag as "enemies of the Soviet people". Most confessed to their "errors" in propounding Mendel's and Darwin's teachings and, consequently, kept their jobs. No one dared challenge Lysenko until 1964 9 years after Stalin died even when he claimed, between 1948 and 1953, that wheat plants can produce seeds of rye. But, as the Encyclopedia Britannica observes, "he and his followers, however, long retained their degrees, their titles, and their academic positions and remained free to support their aberrant trend in biology."



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